EMS personnel are required to handle the EMS stretcher either with or without the
patients a minimum of nine times:
- Removal of the stretcher from the ambulance.
- Movement of the stretcher to the location where the patient is found.
- Movement to their own location, to the stretcher, or to temporary carry i.e. stair chair, reeves
- sleeve or stokes type baskets, or onto full length back board.
- Movement of the stretcher to the Ambulance, possibly over numerous steps, across rough,
- uneven, smooth, firm, or not so firm terrain.
- Movement of the stretcher into the back of the ambulance.
- Movement of the patient out of the ambulance at the health care facility.
- Movement of the patient into the health care facility to the assigned room or waiting area.
- Movement of the patient from the stretcher to the health care bed or waiting area seating
- (whether a chair or wheelchair).
- And finally return of the stretcher to the ambulance once turnover is accomplished.
- Two studies evaluated the biomechanical impact on emergency response personnel.